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Spanish composer and guitarist Paco de Lucía (b. 1947), born Francisco Sánchez Gómez, is a proponent of the modern flamenco style and one of the very few flamenco guitarists who has successfully crossed over into other genres of music, including jazz, funk, classical and world music. The son of Gypsy flamenco guitarist Antonio Sánchez, he adopted ...

Source: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Guitar Heroes, consultant editor Rusty Cutchin
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Most Indian classical music has three main components: a solo melody line, a rhythmic accompaniment and a drone. Vocal music is predominant, although modern Western audiences are more aware of instrumental genres. Improvisation, a key feature of Indian music, is based on the elaborate rules of the ragas and talas, which are the principal formal concepts ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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The fundamental characteristics of Arab classical music are described in splendid treatises including those by al-Kindi (c. ad 801–873) and al-Farabi (d. c. AD 950), in which we read of melodic and rhythmic modes, aesthetics and the physics of sound. The classical music of the Arab world is unified by a system of modes called maqam – analogous to the ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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The term contenance angloise (‘English manner’), was first coined by the poet Martin Le Franc in his poem ‘Le Champion des Dames’ (c. 1440–42), in which he described new French music and implied that Du Fay and Binchois had ‘taken on the contenance angloise and followed Dunstaple’. Although the poet did not define the term, the text immediately before this ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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Du Fay’s Mass L’homme armé was one of the first of several dozen Masses of that name composed between the years 1450 and 1700. ‘L’homme armé’ (‘The Armed Man’) was a popular, probably satirical, tune which may have been aimed at the less-valiant members of the French army during the last stages of the Hundred Years’ War. Attracted by ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(A’-dam de la Al) c. 1250–1300 French Trouvère Adam de la Halle appears as something of a Janus figure at the end of the thirteenth century, at once looking back to his forebears and forwards into the fourteenth century and beyond, and he composed works in amost every genre of the period, including monophonic and polyphonic songs and ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Ber-nar’ d∂ Van’-ta-dôrn) c. 1135–95 French Troubadour Bernart is regarded as perhaps the finest and most musically important of the troubadours. More of his melodies have survived than any other troubadour’s; one, ‘Quan vei la lauzeta mover’ (‘When I See the Lark Open His Wings’), was extremely popular and inspired poems to be sung to its melody in four different ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Hil-de-gart of Bin’-gen) 1098–1179 German Abbess and Composer Hildegard of Bingen was abbess of a convent at Rupertsberg near Bingen in Germany. When she was in her forties, Hildegard started to produce remarkable works of theology, science, healing, drama, history and music. She advised religious and secular rulers as well as undertaking preaching tours. She presented ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Zhä-no’ de Les-koo-rel’) fl. early 14th century French poet and composer Very little is known about Jehannot de Lescurel; his works survive only in an appendix to the most important manuscript of the Roman de Fauvel. This constitutes a collection of some 32 monophonic songs, a polyphonic rondeau and two longer poems. The works are ordered alphabetically but the sequence ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Ge-yom’ da Ma-sho’) c. 1300–77 French Composer and Poet Machaut was the most important poet-composer of fourteenth-century France and had a wide and enduring influence. He was in constant demand by the greatest noble patrons of his day, and his music reflects this patronage. He was unusual, although probably not unique, among medieval writers in that he made an ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Fe-lep’ de Ve-tre’) 1291–1361 French theorist and composer As a result of his treatise Ars nova (c. 1322) Philippe de Vitry was the most musically influential figure of his day. It described new developments in mensural notation, allowing composers more rhythmic flexibility and therefore compositional variety. Unfortunately, no songs known to be by Vitry have survived, but a number ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Vol’-ter fun dâr Fo’-gel-vi-da) fl. c. 1200 German Minnesinger Both in his time and in ours Walther von der Vogelweide has been considered the leading figure in medieval German poetry, and his music was mentioned for its excellence by his contemporaries. His poetic works are found in a large number of manuscripts – an indication of his popularity – but ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Zhak Är’-ka-delt) c. 1505–68 French composer Although probably of French birth, Arcadelt spent much of his adulthood in the great Italian cities of Florence, Rome and Venice. He is best known for madrigals (although he composed Masses, motets and chansons as well), including some of the genre’s most precious gems. They are almost all easy to sing, but ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(An-ton’-yo da Ka-ba-thon’) 1510–66 Spanish keyboard composer and player Blind from birth, Cabezón learnt the organ from an early age and became one of the great keyboard players of his day. He began his career as organist to Queen Isabella. After her death he worked for her children, later attaching himself solely to the future king, Philip II. Cabezón’s ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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(Pa’-dro da Es-ko-bär’) c. 1465–c. 1535 Portuguese composer Although Portuguese by birth, Escobar spent his career in Spain, including 10 years in the chapel of Isabella of Aragon and a stint as maestro de capilla at Seville Cathedral. The date of his death is unknown; he was last heard of around 1535. His motet ‘Clamabat autem mulier’ shows him to ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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