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(Kärl’-hints Shtôk’-hou-zen) 1928–2007 German composer Stockhausen studied with Frank Martin (1890–1974) and then with Messiaen in Paris, where he met Boulez. Stockhausen’s use of serialism differs from Boulez’s: whereas the latter wanted to find a means of creating relations between diverse elements, the former was concerned to provide a smooth path between extremes. This can be clearly seen in ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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1928–2007, German A master of electronic composition, Stockhausen forged a unique path by creating and reinventing musical forms while recasting the fundamentals of musical content. One of his works lasts 24 hours. Another mixes electronic sounds with the voice of a boy soprano. As composer-conductor Pierre Boulez said: ‘He invented a new kind of relationship between music’s components. He ...

Source: Definitive Opera Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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1950s, early experiments with cutting up and manipulating sounds recorded on magnetic tape resulted in a type of music called musique concrète. It was pioneered by composers such as Stockhausen and Varèse, and anticipated the use of samplers in dance music by more than 30 years. Crucially, it showed it was possible to mount a musical performance without live ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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From the 1980s, the new sound-worlds discovered by Stockhausen and others, using tape recorders and recording studio equipment, began to be further extended by the use of computers. The computer enables composers to examine and modify their work in unprecedented detail. Whereas the synthesizer can control pitch and timbre with ease, the computer can go a stage ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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, writing for traditional Japanese and Chinese instruments in their scores. Music technology has also found its way into the orchestra, with pieces for pre-recorded tape and orchestra by Stockhausen and Luciano Berio (1925–2003) dating from the 1950s. Electronic instruments have included synthesizers, samplers and electric guitars, while amplification and occasionally live digital manipulation of sounds are sometimes ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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, there is a part for electric guitar in Michael Berkeley’s (b. 1948) secular oratorio of the nuclear age Or Shall We Die ? and Tippett’s final opera New Year. Stockhausen and Berio have also written for the electric guitar. Styles & Forms | Modern Era | Classical Instruments | Player Piano | Modern Era | Classical ...

Source: Classical Music Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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century, but was used as a solo instrument in the twentieth-century orchestra – as in Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936) and in the music of Stockhausen, Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–75), Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953) and Pierre Boulez (b. 1925). Marimba The marimba appears to have been largely unknown in Europe until the manufacture of orchestral instruments from ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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Fair through a system of some 400 loudspeakers. Musik Electronische Musique concrète eventually fell out of favour, giving way to the school of Musik Electronische, arising from Karlheinz Stockhausen (b. 1928) and his contemporaries of the Studio für Electronische Musik in Cologne. But the genre had made its mark and remained an abiding influence on the electro-acoustic music of ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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took the solo baritone to new heights and established a style of playing that continues today. The baritone has also attracted the attention of art-music composers, most notably Karlheinz Stockhausen (b. 1928) who included it in his extraordinary work Carré (1959). Bass Saxophone The lowest of the family in regular use, the bass saxophone in Bb has a compass ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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cm (2–20 in) in width. Smaller slit drums like the woodblock are also used in western music. Modern slit drums, or gato drums, were used by the composer Karlheinz Stockhausen (b. 1928) in his piece Gruppen, which asked for tuned log drums, and they are also popular instruments in the classroom. Introduction | Percussion Instruments Instruments | Cymbals ...

Source: The Illustrated Complete Musical Instruments Handbook, general editor Lucien Jenkins
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of notation, from the early monastic records of plainsong (made towards the end of the first millennium) to more recent, visually arresting scores by the likes of Karlheinz Stockhausen and George Crumb. The use of scores has given us priceless access to the minds of musicians who lived before the first universities were founded. The complexity of classical music ...

Source: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music, general editor Paul Du Noyer
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support only with the advent of dance music and rave culture from the mid- to late-1980s, it was the sound collage and minimal work of John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen in the mid-twentieth century that provided the impetus for others to experiment with less familiar concepts and instruments. In the 1960s, German bands Neu, Can and Faust, ...

Source: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music, general editor Paul Du Noyer
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Wagner’s Ring cycle is made up of four works – Das Rheingold (‘The Rhinegold’, 1851–54), Die Walküre (‘The Valkyrie’, 1851–56), Siegfried (1851–57; 1864–71) and Götterdämmerung (‘Twilight of the Gods’, 1848–52; 1869–74). Although there have been other, even more ambitious projects in the history of opera – Rutland Boughton’s cycle of choral dramas based on the Arthurian legends and Karlheinz Stockhausen’s ...

Source: Definitive Opera Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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Of New Jazz and For Alto (both on Delmark) – were stunning in their conceptual maturity. In the 1970s, Braxton’s music began to reflect his interest in composers Karlheinz Stockhausen and John Cage, as well as his love of marches by John Philip Sousa. His musical output includes solo works and compositions for massed orchestras of 160 players, ...

Source: The Definitive Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues, founding editor Howard Mandel
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Jarnach, a former pupil of Busoni, but by 1950 he was using Schoenberg’s 12-tone techniques. Throughout the 1950s, he searched for a unique style. However, unlike Stockhausen and Boulez, who wanted to break with the past, he liked to explore aspects of Western culture. He blended acoustic and electronic sound, film, pre-recorded tape ...

Source: Definitive Opera Encyclopedia, founding editor Stanley Sadie
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